Nucleopolyhedrosis virus NPV 核型多角体病毒


英文名称:nucleopolyhedrosis virus;NPV
核多角体病毒(nuclear polyhedrosis viruses)  一类专性昆虫病毒,其加工制剂是病毒杀虫剂。
性能 核型多角体病毒呈十二面体、四角体、五角体、六角体等,直径0.5-15uM,包埋多个病毒粒子,由蛋白质组成,不溶于水、乙醇、乙醚、氯仿、苯、丙酮、1mol/l盐酸,溶于氢氧化钠、氢氧化钾、氨及硫酸的水溶液和乙酸。多在寄主的血、脂肪、氯管、皮肢等细胞的细胞核内发育,故称核型多角体病毒。核型多角体病毒寄主范围较广,主要寄生鳞翅目昆虫。经口或伤口感染。经口进入虫体的病毒被胃液消化,游离出杆状病毒粒子,通过中肠上皮细胞进入体腔,侵入细胞,在细胞核内增殖,之后再侵入健康细胞,直到昆虫致死。病虫粪便和死虫再传染其他昆虫,使病毒病在害虫种群中流行,从而控制害虫危害。病毒也可通过卵传到昆虫子代。专化性强,一种病毒只能寄生一种昆虫或其邻近种群。只能在活的寄主细胞内增殖。比较稳定,在无阳光直射的自然条件下可保存数年不失活。粉纹夜蛾核型多角体病毒在土壤中可维持感染力达5年左右。未见害虫产生抗药性。对人畜、鸟类、益虫、鱼等安全。不耐高温。易被紫外线杀灭,阳光照射会失活。能被消毒剂杀死。
应用: 主要用于防治农业和林业害虫。棉铃虫核型多角体病毒已在约20个国家用于防治棉花、高粱、玉米、烟草、西红柿的棉铃虫。世界上成功地大面积应用过的还有松黄叶蜂、松叶蜂、维基尼亚松叶蜂、舞毒蛾、毒蛾、天幕毛虫、苜蓿粉蝶、粉纹夜蛾、实夜蛾、斜纹夜蛾、金合欢树蓑蛾等害虫的核型多角体病毒。中国自己分离培养,大面积田间治虫取得良好效果的有棉铃虫、桑毛虫、斜纹夜蛾、舞毒蛾的核型多角体病毒。

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The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) which belongs to the sub group Baculoviruses is a virus affecting insects, predominantly moths and butterflies. It has been used as a pesticide for crops infested by insects susceptible to contraction. Though commercialization of the viral pesticide is slow as the virus is very species specific, making it effective under certain circumstances.

The virus strain itself is protected in a polygonal structured capsid. This enables the virus to infect cells more easily, and aids in reproduction of the virus. When the capsid is broken down within a host, virus strains are released and begin reproduction. Once there is a significant build up of virus, symptoms become noticeable.

Heliothis sp. is a cosmopolitan insect pest attacking at least 30 food and fibre yielding crop plants. They have been controlled by the application of NPV's Baculovirus heliothis. In 1975, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.A. registered the B.heliothis preparations.

Related Science Fiction: This virus is not dangerous to humans, but in the novel The Cobra Event by Richard Preston, the strain was altered with the Variola Minor virus (small pox) to create a highly contagious and lethal neurovirus called the ‘Cobra Virus’ – which affected humans as well as insects.


Symptoms are:[citation needed]
Discoloration (brown and yellow)
Stress (regurgitation)
Decomposition (liquification)
Lethargy (slow-moving to no movement at all. Refusal to eat)

The virus enters the nucleus of infected cells, and reproduces until the cell is assimilated by the virus and produces crystals in the fluids of the host. These crystals will transfer the virus from one host to another.

The host will become visibly swollen with fluid containing the virus and will eventually die - turning black with decay.

[edit] Transmissibility

The virus is unable to affect humans in the way it affects insects as our cells are acid-based, when it requires an alkaline-based cell in order to replicate. It is possible for the virus crystals to enter human cells, but not replicate to the point of illness.

It is transferred from insect to insect through crystals in all of their bodily emissions. As the virus is in the crystal-like capsid, it requires to be broken down by the alkaline digestive system of the insects to be released.

Mortality in infected insects is nearly 100%

Bleach and ultra-violet light have been found to prove effective in killing the virus.